The following instructions in military security come from British sources
and are intended for the guidance of the "Unit Security Officer" of the British
forces operating in India. Especially charged with the problems of security are
the "Field Security Sections" and the "Unit Security Officers," discussed below.
* * *
Security is the name given to our countermeasures against the enemy's
secret attack by espionage, sabotage, propaganda, and Fifth Column activities.
The enemy espionage service is trying to obtain information about all military
matters. Enemy saboteurs are holding up our war effort by damaging war
materials, derailing trains and tampering with gasoline supplies. The enemy
propaganda aims at undermining morale.
Security measures will neutralize such attempts. Security is only
possible if it becomes the personal daily concern of every member of the forces,
from the Commander-in-Chief to the private, and of every civilian.
b. Field Security Sections
In all activated corps and divisions there are Field Security Sections on
the scale of one per corps and one per division, and such sections as the situation
demands at Army Corps HQ, GHQ, on lines of communication, base areas and ports.
Part of the personnel are linguists, and all are specially trained in security work.
There are three types of sections, all-Indian, composite (Indian and
British) and all-British. [The all-British would probably be met with an
all-British division, and a composite or all-Indian in the Indian divisions or special
organizations.] The all-Indian sections consist of a lieutenant [probably native],
two "Viceroy's commissioned officers" [corresponding to our warrant officer,
and of two grades], two sergeants, four corporals, six lance-corporals, and two
privates. The composite sections consist of a lieutenant, one warrant officer,
a sergeant, two corporals, two lance-corporals, all British; a native sergeant,
British sections include one officer--captain or lieutenant, two warrant officers,
two sergeants, four corporals, six lance-corporals, and a private. In each of the
above groups, the privates are orderlies or chauffeurs. All sections have
a 1 1/2-ton truck and are completely mobile and self-contained.
The duties of the Field Security Section are to advise and instruct in all
security matters, to provide specialists for putting security measures into
operation and to conduct security investigations, and to cooperate with civil police in
counter-espionage. The sections work under the direction of the Intelligence
Staffs of the units to which they are attached.
Field Security personnel are not concerned with the discipline of troops.
They are concerned with the maintenance of good security. All ranks should be
encouraged to look on them as friends and advisers, whose criticism, when made,
is intended to be constructive only. They are NOT police or spies. There are at
ports, in addition, specialized Security Sections who work under the local Military
Port Security Officer. These are directed by Military Intelligence Directorate of
GHQ and are mainly concerned with counter-espionage control. NOTE: All-British
Field Security Sections raised and trained in the United Kingdom are part of the
When the Indian Intelligence Corps becomes fully organized, all Field
Service personnel will be accordingly transferred to it. Members of Field Security
Sections raised and trained in India are mainly drawn from the units to which they
will eventually be assigned.
c. Unit Security Officers
In every unit or installation, one officer will be appointed as "unit security
officer." His duties, as such, are in addition to his other duties. His role is an
important one for he is charged with the training of the individual, which is the
foundation of good security.
It is his duty to ensure that security measures are properly applied within
his own unit. His responsibility as far as concerns civilians, other than those
employed in his own unit, is limited to close liaison with the civil authorities. He
will also act as an intelligent observer and reliable reporter of suspicious incidents.
He must at all times maintain close relations with the Field Security
Personnel in his unit or area. He must not, however, carry out any investigation
work except under express instruction from the higher command. It is possible
that this particular case is already under investigation, and that independent
investigation will only cause confusion.
d. Military Security
(1) Security of Information
Surprise is a most potent factor in war. It is of supreme importance that
we deny the enemy information from which he may judge of our condition or guess
This can be done by using common sense and imagination to prevent
military information of any kind coming to the knowledge of unauthorized persons
and so, eventually, to the enemy. It is the rule of the closed office and the closed
mouth--in a word, security discipline.
Every soldier should be made to understand that a breach of security is
not merely an offense against an arbitrary military code, but a crime against his
comrades and his country's life.
The knowledge of an enemy's armed forces, dispositions, and intentions
is usually gained by the piecing together of many disjointed and often apparently
quite valueless scraps of information. No piece of information can, therefore, be
regarded so trivial as not to require safeguarding.
Information which is of particular interest to the enemy includes the
Our intentions and plans for the conduct of the war by land, sea and air.
Means whereby any enemy operations have been frustrated.
The order of battle, movements, locations, and morale of our forces. The
names, characteristics, and particulars of our commanders and their staffs.
Developments in all forms of armament, equipment, and training.
Administrative arrangements, such as locations of bases, supply
depots, distribution centers, and key industrial plants. Details regarding sources
and systems of supply of all kinds.
Any reference to spies or suspicious persons in our hands, whether
awaiting trial or already disposed of.
Sailing dates, routes, and destinations of all types of shipping.
Losses in men and materiel.
Details of enemy attacks, whether by sea or air.
The situation in regard to manpower, recruiting, economic resources,
and civilian morale.
Local subversive political movements.
Our information regarding the enemy.
The main sources of leakage of information may be summarized as:
Insufficient precautions to prevent unauthorized persons from obtaining
access to offices, HQ, and other military establishments. All persons, whether in
uniform or not, and of whatever rank, must be made to establish their identity
unless personally known to the guard. Over-caution is excusable, lack of caution
Carelessness in classification and safeguarding of documents, marked
maps, ciphers, codes, etc. Omission to burn drafts, carbons, unnecessary copies
of orders, etc. Omission to carry out a systematic search of all vacated premises,
including officers' quarters, when moving. Omission to collect daily and burn under
supervision all secret waste paper. Carelessness in carrying secret documents
on the person in trains or in cars at all times and particularly when in contact
with the enemy. Disclosure of the existence of secret documents. Even laundry
tickets and theater stubs or old letters may sometimes give valuable information
to the enemy.
Disclosing official information of future operations, moves, etc., to
anyone not directly concerned with such information.
Capture by the enemy, and loss, of personal diaries. All personnel
must realize that these are documents which are certain to contain matters of
interest to the enemy, and must be safeguarded.
A fruitful source of information to an enemy intelligence staff is the
examination of our prisoners of war. All personnel must, therefore, be thoroughly
instructed as to their conduct if they have the misfortune to be captured. A
prisoner must give his correct name, rank, and serial number and nothing else. The
most difficult man to interrogate is the one who is determined to maintain a
polite but strictly military attitude towards the interrogator, viz., "You are a
soldier. I am a soldier. I have my orders and I must obey them."
Reticence under interrogation must be followed by reticence among fellow
prisoners; it is certain that there will be "stool pigeons" dressed in British and
Indian uniforms to overhear conversation. Microphones may also be used. It is
absolutely forbidden for prisoners to broadcast. Unless incapacitated by wounds,
it is the duty of a soldier taken prisoner to attempt to escape. The first 24 hours
after capture usually present the most favorable opportunities.
(2) Security of Materiel
As far as military security is concerned, this is mainly a question of
providing physical safeguards, and of siting dumps, vehicle parks, etc., with an eye
to protection against sabotage. The dispersal of dumped materiel into small lots
to limit the effects of enemy air attack frequently makes physical safeguarding
difficult, but such dispersal also localizes the effects of an act of sabotage. The
only time at which a potential saboteur is likely to come into the open is when he
is making his reconnaissance. For this reason the strictest security of identity
papers, both of civilians and members of the uniformed services, is absolutely
necessary wherever anti-sabotage guards are mounted. No person of whatever rank
should be allowed to approach the materiel or the point being guarded unless it is
necessary for him to do so in the course of his duty and then only after
identification. It is also the duty of Unit Security Officers to advise, on track discipline,
vehicle concealment and camouflage affecting safety from air observation and
(3) Security of Personnel
Lying propaganda, rumors, doubt and treason are weeds that flourish in
rank soil, but cannot take root in a healthy one. The cultivation of resolute
cheerfulness, sane thinking, and high morale is an invincible defense. Rumor must be
traced and the persons who start and pass on rumor must be punished. Listening
to enemy radio propaganda should be ridiculed and discouraged. It should be
impressed upon all ranks that it is their duty at all times to discourage and counter-
act unfounded gossip or statements likely to cause alarm or despondency, whether
made by members of the armed forces or civilians, in public or in private.
Security officers are reminded that troops going on leave and off duty are their
best propagandists if properly trained and instructed.
(4) Security of Operations and Training
This is the particular application of all security measures to ensure the
secrecy of particular operations or training. These are frequently coupled with
active measures to deceive and mislead the enemy which are usually the subject
of special instructions from the higher command. The responsibility of unit
security officers is to see that these are carried out to the smallest detail.