The Japanese have at least two types of lacrimatory candles, and at least
one type of lacrimatory grenade. The agent employed in all three
is CN (chloracetophenone), a tear gas.
a. Lacrimatory Candle, Type "89"
This lacrimatory candle, 7 1/16 inches in length, weighs approximately
8.5 ounces, including the chemical filling weighing 4.6 ounces. The lacrimatory
filling consists of collodion flakes impregnated with 25 percent CN. The
container is painted a greenish-gray color.
|Key to Sketch|
|1. Adhesive tape|| || 9. Vents|
|2. Lid (metal)||10. Fuse|
|3. Abrasive surface||11. Fuse tube (copper)|
|4. Scratch block (wood)||12. Starter mixture|
|5. Cotton wad||13. Impregnated flakes|
|6. Match head||14. Container|
|7. Inner cover||15. Base|
|8. Gauze||16. Label|
The label had the following printed instructions:
(a) On maneuvers, to represent non-persistent gas;
(b) For dispersing crowds, riots, etc.
(2) Method of Using
(a) Tear off the waterproof adhesive tape (1) and remove the lid (2);
(b) Take out the scratch block (4) and rub it on the top of the match head (6); after
ignition, place the candle in position or throw it;
(c) Gas is emitted 4 seconds after ignition.
(3) Special Caution
(a) Before ignition, put on gas mask; the gas vents (9) must face away from the body;
(b) Do not use the candle near inflammable substances;
(c) After all gas has been emitted, do not touch the candle for several minutes, because
of the heat generated;
(d) If the chemical comes into contact with the skin, use soap and water (warm
water alone will also do) as soon as possible.
(4) Effective Life
One year after manufacture; thereafter, to be examined for effectiveness every 6 months.
b. Green Lacrimatory Candle, Type "A"
The total weight of this candle is 5.9 ounces, including the chemical
filling which weighs 1.9 ounces. It is 2.3 inches in diameter and 5.2 inches in
length. The lacrimatory filling consists of collodion flakes
impregnated with CN.
The label on this candle is essentially the same as the one under paragraph a. above, except
that the period of effective life is six months after the date of manufacture.
|Key to Sketch|
|1. Lid (metal)|| ||10. Starter mixture|
|2. Abrasive surface||11. Impregnated flakes|
|3. Scratch block (wood)||12. Outer container|
|4. Cotton wad||13. Inner container (cardboard)|
|5. Match head||14. Base|
|6. Three layers of gauze||15. Cord for removing tape|
|7. Vents||16. Adhesive tape|
|8. Fuse||17. Label|
|9. Fuse tube (brass)||18. Vents (sealed with oil|
paper or tinfoil)
c. Lacrimatory Grenade, Type "89," Type "C"
The total weight of this grenade is approximately 11 ounces, including
the lacrimatory filling which weighs 4.84 ounces. It is 2.1 inches in diameter
and 5.1 inches long. The label (17) on the body gives the details of its use and
method of operation. It is painted a silver-gray color.
When the grenade is removed from the outer container (8), a match head
(5) forming the top of the fuse (9) is exposed. This is ignited with the abrasive
surface (2) of the scratch block (3) and after a delay of 4 to 5 seconds the
burster charge (13) becomes ignited. On exploding, the grenade is shattered and
the lacrimatory filling (14) scattered. The lacrimatory filling is ON dissolved in
carbon tetrachloride. The container for the fuse (10), the insulating tube (11), and
the container for the lacrimatory (12) may be vulcanite, celluloid, or some
plastic material which would not be corroded by the liquid filling.
|Key to Sketch|
|1. Lid (metal)|| || 9. Fuse|
|2. Abrasive surface||10. Container for fuse|
|3. Scratch block (wood)||11. Insulating tube|
|4. Cotton wad||12. Container for lacrimatory|
|5. Match head||13. Burster (gun powder)|
|6. Cement stopper||14. Liquid lacrimator|
|7. Adhesive tape||15. Cotton packing|
|8. Outer container (metal)||16. Base|