Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, October 1, 1944
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Chapter IX: Weapons
Section II: Infantry Weapons
1. PISTOLS, REVOLVERS, AND RIFLES. a. General. (1) All known Japanese rifles and carbines are of Arisaka design. Immediately after the Russo-Japanese War, Model 38 (1905) 6.5-mm Rifle was introduced and all subsequent rifles and carbines have adhered to this design. Later models have a folding monopod attached to the lower band. The design closely follows the Mauser and is simple and sturdy. The safety mechanism is an unusual feature.
(2) The only known Japanese military revolver is a very clumsy copy of a Smith and Wesson top-break revolver. This weapon was introduced in 1893.
(3) The first Japanese military magazine pistol was designed by General Nambu. Despite its superficial
resemblance to the German Luger, the action of the Nambu pistol is unique. The original design was
improved in the
(4) The Model 94 (1934) pistol is a crude attempt to make a small pistol along general Browning lines.
b. Nambu 8-mm pistol. (1) General description. This is a semiautomatic, recoil-operated, magazine-fed hand weapon (fig. 167). It is equipped with a grip safety below the trigger guard.
The markings on the right side of the receiver read "Nambu model". In addition to the markings, the weapon is easily identified by the recoil-spring housing (a bulge on the left side of the receiver) and the adjustable rear sight. This is a leaf with an open V notch sliding on a ramp and is graduated from 100 to 500 meters. The weapon may be equipped with a wooden holster, also designed to be used as a shoulder stock when attached to the heel of the butt.
(3) Ammunition. Rimless ball cartridges are provided and are interchangeable in
c. Model 14 (1925) 8-mm pistol. (1) General description. The model 14 (1925) 8-mm pistol is a semiautomatic, recoil-operated, magazine-fed hand weapon (fig. 168). It is a development of the Nambu 8-mm pistol. Markings on the left side of the receiver read "14th year model". The front sight is a blade type sight and the rear sight is a non-adjustable open V notch. The safety lever is moved to the forward position for "fire" and rearward for "safe." An unusually large trigger guard permits firing with a gloved hand.
(3) Ammunition. Rimless ball cartridges are provided and are interchangeable in the Nambu and the model 94 pistols.
d. Model 94 (1934) 8-mm pistol. (1) General description. The model 94 (1934) 8-mm pistol (fig. 169) is the latest design of semiautomatic pistol manufactured by the Japanese. It is believed to be inferior to the Nambu and the model 14 pistols because of poor design and manufacture. It is a semiautomatic, recoil-operated, magazine-fed hand weapon. Markings on the left side of the receiver read "Model 94". The front sight is a blade type sight and the rear sight is a non-adjustable open V notch type. A safety catch on the left rear of the receiver is moved upwards for "safe" and downwards for "fire".
(3) Ammunition. Rimless ball cartridges are provided and are interchangeable in the Nambu and the model 14 pistols.
e. Model 26 (1893) 9-mm revolver. (1) General description. This revolver is solely a double action weapon with a cylinder having six chambers (fig. 170). It is a copy of the old Smith and Wesson top-break type. The weapon is equipped with blade type front sight and notch type rear sight. There is no positive safety device and owing to the extremely heavy trigger pull it has a comparatively low rate of fire. Moreover crude construction prohibits positive alignment of barrel and cylinder making its accuracy questionable. The markings on the right side of the frame read "26th year model."
(3) Ammunition. This weapon fires 9-mm rimmed ball ammunition.
f. Model 38 (1905) 6.5-mm rifle. (1) General description. This rifle is a manually operated, clip loaded, magazine-fed weapon, with the Mauser type bolt action which is found in most military rifles. It is commonly referred to as the Arisaka rifle. The rifle is manufactured in 3 standard lengths as shown in figure 171; the longest of which is the standard infantry weapon. The shorter rifles are issued to other arms. The "safety" is locked by pressing the knob at the end of the bolt and turning it to the right. It has a blade type front sight and a leaf rear sight graduated from 100 to 2,400 meters. There is no windage or drift adjustment. The small caliber, long barrel, and medium muzzle velocity of this piece results in relatively no recoil and comparatively little muzzle flash. The markings on top of the receiver read "Model 38."
(3) Ammunition. The cartridges are semirimmed. Ball ammunition and tracer ammunition have been recovered.
g. Model 44 (1911) cavalry carbine. (1) General description. This carbine (fig. 172) is substantially the same as the model 38 (1905) short rifle. The action, operation, and sights are similar on all Arisaka rifles. This model, however, has a permanently attached spike type bayonet, that folds under and rests in a slot in the stock while being carried. This rifle has a blade front sight and a leaf rear sight graduated from 300 to 2000 meters. There is no windage or drift adjustment.
(3) Ammunition. The weapon uses the same ammunition as the model 38 rifle, and the cartridges are semirimmed. Both ball and tracer ammunition have been recovered.
h. Model 99 (1939) 7.7-mm rifle. (1) General description. The Japanese are replacing their 6.5-mm weapons with this shorter, heavier caliber weapon (fig. 173). This rifle is an improved version of model 38 (1905) Arisaka rifle. The rifle has a blade front sight and a leaf rear sight graduated from 300 to 1500 meters. Modifications, other than the larger caliber which also help to identify this piece, are as follows: Monopod under fore end; antiaircraft sight arms attached to rear sight leaf; magazine floor plate hinged to forward part of trigger guard; sling swivels attached to side instead of under part of rifle. The markings on the top of the receiver read "Model 99." Reports have been received that a short model (38 inches overall) is being issued to service troops.
(3) Ammunition. This is supplied in 5 round clips, 3 clips to a package. It is a rimless type supplied in ball, tracer, and armor piercing varieties, and has standard markings. This ammunition can be used in the 7.7-mm model 92 (1932) machine gun, but the model 92 ammunition is semirimmed and cannot be used in the rifle.
i. Sniper's rifle. (1) General description. This particular piece of equipment is found in two models, model 97 (1937) 6.5-mm and model 99 (1939) 7.7-mm (fig. 174). The two rifles are the same length as the long model 38 (1905) 6.5-mm and can be identified by the fact that, in addition to standard sights, the sniper's model has a telescope mounted on the left of the receiver, a turned down bolt handle, and a monopod under fore end. It is believed that these rifles are manufactured more carefully than the standard rifles.
(3) Ammunition. The model 97 (1937) 6.5-mm fires standard 6.5-mm semirimmed ammunition. Model 99 (1939) 7.7-mm fires standard 7.7-mm rimless ammunition.
j. Rifle grenade launchers (dischargers). (1) Spigot type launcher. This attachment (fig. 175) is placed over the rifle muzzle and locked into place, behind the front sight. Two types of grenades are known to be fired from this launcher. Both types are projected by a special cartridge (fitted with a wooden bullet) which is normally packed in the grenade fin assembly.
(a) Fragmentation grenade Model 91 (1931). This grenade has been adopted for use as a rifle grenade by replacing the propellant charge normally found screwed into the base of this grenade, with a fin assembly. Prior to firing, the safety pin must be removed from the fuze. When projected, the fuze action will be started by the shock of the explosion upon the base of the grenade. Grenade will detonate in 7-8 seconds (approx.) after firing.
(b) Rifle smoke grenade. The rifle smoke grenade weighs 1.3 pounds and is painted silver. It contains approximately 0.6 pounds of an HC white smoke mixture. No fuze is used, the action being started by the flash of the propelling charge.
(2) Rifled type launcher. This launcher (fig. 176) is designed for projecting the hollow charge high explosive AP grenade. When fired, the action of the discharger cup rifling on the lugs (prerifled rotating band) of the grenade forces the projectile to rotate, giving stability in flight. It is reported that this grenade is projected by a special cartridge fitted with a wooden bullet.
(3) Cup type launcher Model 100. This launcher is used for projecting the Model 99 (1939) fragmentation grenade. The launcher is attached to the muzzle of the rifle, and the grenade, with safety pin removed, placed inside the cup. Standard ball ammunition is used for projecting the grenade, which has a range of approximately 100 yards when using any standard Japanese rifle. The grenade time fuze is started when the weapon is fired, detonating in approximately 4-5 seconds.
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